Tipos de direcciones IPv6 multicast unicast localcast anycast

Posted on Actualizado enn

Las direcciones IPv6 son identificadores de 128bits de longitud, identifican interfaces de red. A una misma interfaces de un nodo se le puede asignar múltiples direcciones IPv6. Dichas direcciones se clasifican en tres tipos:

 

| TYPE      | ASSOCIATIONS     | SCOPE           | EXAMPLE |
------------------------------------------------------------
| Unicast   | 1 to 1           | Whole network   | HTTP    | 
------------------------------------------------------------
| Broadcast | 1 to Many        | Subnet          | ARP     |
------------------------------------------------------------
| Multicast | One/Many to Many | Defined horizon | SLP     |
------------------------------------------------------------
| Anycast   | Many to Few      | Whole network   | 6to4    |
------------------------------------------------------------

 

UNICAST

Un equipo quiere conectarse con otro

MULTICAST

Envía solo a un grupo de equipos definidos según su dirección IPv6

Address Description
ff02::1 All nodes on the local network segment
ff02::2 All routers on the local network segment
ff02::5 OSPFv3 All SPF routers
ff02::6 OSPFv3 All DR routers
ff02::8 IS-IS for IPv6 routers
ff02::9 RIP routers
ff02::a EIGRP routers
ff02::d PIM routers
ff02::16 MLDv2 reports (defined in RFC 3810)
ff02::1:2 All DHCP servers and relay agents on the local network segment (defined in RFC 3315)
ff02::1:3 All LLMNR hosts on the local network segment (defined in RFC 4795)
ff05::1:3 All DHCP servers on the local network site (defined in RFC 3315)
ff0x::c Simple Service Discovery Protocol
ff0x::fb Multicast DNS
ff0x::101 Network Time Protocol
ff0x::108 Network Information Service
ff0x::181 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) version 2 messages (Sync, Announce, etc.) except peer delay measurement
ff02::6b Precision Time Protocol (PTP) version 2 peer delay measurement messages
ff0x::114 Used for experiments

BROADCAST

A diferencia de IPv4, el protocolo IPv6 NO soporta direcciones Broadcast. Para los que no conocen las direcciones broadcast, estás son las direcciones utilizadas para la comunicación de un nodo con todos los nodos dentro de un segmento de red. Este tipo de dirección fue eliminado en IPv6.

ANYCAST

Anycast is networking technique where the same IP prefix is advertised from multiple locations. The network then decides which location to route a user request to, based on routing protocol costs and possibly the ‘health’ of the advertising servers.

There are several benefits to anycast. First, in steady state, users of an anycast service (DNS is an excellent example) will always connect to the ‘closest’ (from a routing protocol perspective) DNS server. This reduces latency, as well as providing a level of load-balancing (assuming that your consumers are evenly distributed around your network).

Another advantage is ease of configuration management. Rather than having to configure different DNS servers depending on where a server/workstation is deployed (Asia, America, Europe), you have one IP address that is configured in every location.

Anycast addressing is a one-to-one-of-many association where datagrams are routed to any single member of a group of potential receivers that are all identified by the same destination address. The routing algorithm selects the single receiver from the group based on which is the nearest according to some distance measure.

An anycast address is an address that is assigned to a set of interfaces that typically belong to different nodes. A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to the closest interface (as defined by the routing protocols in use) identified by the anycast address. Anycast addresses are syntactically indistinguishable from unicast addresses, because anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space. Assigning a unicast address to more than one interface makes a unicast address an anycast address. Nodes to which the anycast address is assigned must be explicitly configured to recognize that the address is an anycast address.





Example: Configuring IPv6 Anycast Addressing
 interface tunnel 0
   tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4
   tunnel source ethernet1
   ipv6 address 2001:0db8:1::1/64
   ipv6 address 2002:0db8:6301::/128 anycast
  !
  interface ethernet 1
   ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
   ip address 192.88.99.1 255.255.255.0 secondary

Fuente: https://serverfault.com/questions/279482/what-is-the-difference-between-unicast-anycast-broadcast-and-multicast-traffic

Lista de direcciones Multicast https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multicast_address

Información de Anycast nota 1: https://serverfault.com/questions/14985/what-is-anycast-and-how-is-it-helpful

Información de Anycast nota 2 anycast http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipv6_basic/configuration/15-2s/ip6-anycast-add.html#GUID-EFC10254-7227-4038-B813-12FBC51CA313

Información de Broadcast http://blog.capacityacademy.com/2013/04/16/cisco-ccna-todo-sobre-ipv6-tipos-de-direcciones/

Información de la cita de Unicast y imagen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anycast

Imagen tipos de direcciones https://techiemaster.wordpress.com/2016/08/15/what-is-unicast-broadcast-multicast-anycast/

AUTOR: David Perez Martorell davidperezmartorell@gmail.com

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